Design for financial inclusion: Lessons learned & reflections from IDDS Kenya 2018

By Julio Lavalle

The views on this post are based on my experience co leading the curriculum at the International Development Design Summit (IDDS) Kenya on Financial Inclusion, conversations with organizers, participants & community partners throughout our journey, as well as personal reflections after project development and continuity potential. The data on financial inclusion used as reference reflects the latest WB Global Findex unless stated otherwise.

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The main learnings I share below in this post are:

  1. Income generation as a prior (or parallel) step towards the use of financial services.

  2. The power to design for gender.

  3. Financial services as means to promote needed basic services.

  4. Educate to bank.

  5. The intersection of design and behavioral economics to make unfrequent users become power users.

A bit of context on the big picture of financial inclusion before the deep dive:

Overall 69% of adults (15y+) around the world have an account, being the vast majority of accounts at banks, microfinance institutions, another type of regulated financial institution, or a mobile money account. In Kenya, the financially included stand at 82% of the adult population [In contrast to 37% in Mexico, 43% in Peru and 70% in Brazil].

Moreover, 4% of the world’s adult population has a mobile money account (690 mi people). Sub Saharan Africa, represents 56% of this total. As the figure states, no other region accounts for such high numbers. More than half of it is represented by East Africa, led by Kenya (73%), Uganda (51%) and Zimbabwe (49%) where these percentages represenst the portion of adults that own mobile money accounts.

But what does mobile/digital money have to do with finclusion? Access to financial services is critical as it makes it easier to invest in health, education and business. Digital technologies also offer powerful ways to boost financial access based on the key features of digital financial services; such as (i) the ease of use through mobile phones, (ii) scalability, and (iii) user-centered design, promoting affordability and convenience. All of which promote adoption, financial access and inclusion.

To talk about finclusion and mobile money in Kenya is to talk about M-PESA. Since its launch in 2007 by Safaricom, M-PESA allows money to be stored on mobile phones and sent to other users via text messages and has been adopted by the majority of Kenyan households (59%), revolutionizing the way people spend, send and save money. I was personally amazed by the way M-PESA makes it easy to transact all over the country from buying a banana in the market, pay the bill at a restaurant, your ride on a matatu (the pituresque local mini buses if you insist you have no cash), and even the entrance to national parks. You can leave home without your wallet and make it easily throughout the day without a single Kenyan Shilling bill (no joke). [Other mobile money providers include Airtel Money, Equitel Money, Mobile Pay and T-Kash]

On the impact side, it is estimated that access to M-PESA has increased per capital consumption levels and has lifted 194,000 households out of poverty (or 2% of Kenyan households) in about 8 years. It has also enabled households led by women to increase their savings by more than a fifth; allowed 185,000 women to leave farming and develop business or retail activities.

We’ve known for some time that there is a correlation between mobile phone utilization and economic development. But although this digital revolution is on its way forward, there are still many challenges that need to be addressed.

  • 17% of Kenyan adults remain fully financially excluded. Even with 1/3 of this population owing a cellphone, they do not have a bank account, use another formal product like mobile money, or even use an informal mechanism like a savings collective. For every 3 Kenyans that are underbanked, 2 of them are women.

  • There is also a gap between access in urban and rural areas, where 6 of every 10 Africans live: 8 out of 10 of the financially excluded are rural.

  • The digital mix of products that are currently offered may not solve the real challenges of the whole range of users as more than half (of the excluded) state that the services do not meet the needs they have to make their use worthwhile.

  • Productive activities such as farming, which employs more than half of Africa’s adult population, struggle with inefficient yields given that the majority of farms have no irrigation, no help with seed or fertiliser, no access to market and unclear ownership rights. This leads to unstable incomes and reduces the chances to benefit from financial services.

  • Despite of the expansion of M-PESA, cash is still king in Kenya. As many as 8 out of 10 transactions are still cash nowadays. This is because adoption does not necessarily translate into usage. It is estimated that only one third of mobile money users have actually used their accounts in the last 90 days. Inactive accounts [or "dormant accounts" as in the industry jargon] often exist due to a combination of inconvenient access, limited financial literacy of users, a mismatch between customer demand & product design and ecosystem creation.

  • For those who have access to mobile accounts, mobile loans have become the largest source of lending in Kenya outside friends & family and Savings & Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) [There are up to 25 independent mobile lending apps in Kenya which disburse between Ksh 50 (US$ 0,50) and Ksh 100,000 (US$1,000) loans]. As a matter of fact 4 out of 10 Kenyans rely on mobile loans for credit, against 1 of 10 taking bank loans. Currently, banks can only charge customers 13.5% per year on loans, but through apps, this percentage rises to up to an average of 138% per year (7 to 10% per month). Because of this, many Kenyans are now caught in several mobile loans to pay, forcing them to jump from one provider to another. Other than the 37% of farmers and entrepreneurs who borrow for business, most of the digital borrowers use the money for daily needs, including buying personal items, leisure and phone credit.

At IDDS Kenya, our goal was to understand through the design process, what is it that is missing in this revolution and why is it that households (especially in rural settings) may not use or optimize the use of this wave of growing services. In this sense, pay more attention to the demand side to identify the structural design factors that keep people out of the formal financial system.

These are some of the learnings I was able to identify during the process:

1.Income generation as a prior (or paralell) step towards the use of financial services. In a country where 36% of the population live under the poverty line (US$1.90/day) and ranks amongst the top ten unequal countries, people do not wake up looking for an account to store their money in, they are looking how to make that money first. As a matter of fact, the main reason that both men and women cite for not having a financial account is that they simply are not earning enough to open one.

At IDDS Kenya 2018. The team Msitu Ni Fedha took this learning into account by promoting high yield seed planting to improve current income generation activities in local farmers that work with Kenya Forest Services (KFS) towards forest sustainability.

Through a gamified feature phone app based on a data mapping platform , farmers will be able to gather information on the best seeds to plant in a given season and be challenged to advance levels of planting (that will be agregated through geolocation) to accumulate points that could later be exchanged by rewards [sent to their mobile wallets to push the use of FinServs] such as improved cookstoves, high yield seeds, environmentally-friendly charcoal, among others.

When talking about income generation, is it useful to ask if the target user is near a tipping point, and only needs slightly better incentives to start using today’s financial services?

See the team's problem to prototype journey here and their final pitch here.

 The Micro Forestry team "Msitu Ni Fedha": Eva kebadile (Botswana), Galdys Kinya (Kenya), Ismael Matipa (Tanzania), Frank Matovu (Uganda) with the support of organizers Eric Wachira and Peter Linus. Design Facilitator: Claudine Chen (Ireland).

The Micro Forestry team "Msitu Ni Fedha": Eva kebadile (Botswana), Galdys Kinya (Kenya), Ismael Matipa (Tanzania), Frank Matovu (Uganda) with the support of organizers Eric Wachira and Peter Linus. Design Facilitator: Claudine Chen (Ireland).

2. The power to design for gender. As transformative as products like M-PESA may be, they don’t overcome every obstacle. The limits to a woman’s financial power and prospects range from cultural and family restrictions to actual laws and policies. Different products and features impact men and women differently and that is why we need to encourage ourselves as impact designers to internalize that although both men and women show same ability levels when using financial services, there are different mindsets, awareness, risk aversion and price sensitivity levels to take into account. For instance:

  • Lower awareness and high risk aversion means rural women are often less likely to try new services.

  • Transaction fees appear to be a bigger barrier for women than men.

  • Women face challenges receiving farming income through mobile money. For rural women, cash is the best option for day to day expenses.

A timing factor is also a variable to consider when assessing when in a woman’s life certain products and services will be most effective. In this setting, some may be ideal for before a woman gets married. After marriage, her responsibilities may change dramatically, and, therefore, so will the kind of product mix she needs.

At IDDS Kenya, the savings platform team Chama Kuza understood that because of this lack of awareness and education, specially on fund managament and investment, most rural chamas [traditional savings groups led by women] are not able to grow and see the return on their investments; instead they stay in vicious cycles of debt and stagnation.

Through a feature phone mobile platform the team aims to connect these rural chamas with profitable investment sources. The platform will also help to create planning and group management skills in the different contexts of these women’s lifes. Through their work, the team is also highlighting that current product offering is not well suited to savings groups [and women are more likely than man to use savings groups]. At the same time, current products are not well suited for the informal economy [and women are more likely than men to have informal income sources]. Individual savings and loan products seem not to fit with women’s savings group culture.

One additional fact that caught my eye about gender-centered design is the finesse when working around traditional social structures. In Kenya it is very common to hear stories about women being part of chamas for 15 or 20 years, some of them even belong to more than one savings group [with amazing and touching stories of progress and life-changing experiences]. Just like in Peru and Brazil, in the rural setting, people live more communal lives, tied into social obligations such as financial support to your neighbors/family members and other type of exchanges. Although this group-think mentality and practices must be very valued, it should also be questioned when resource and information poor environments are identified, since heavy reliance on word of mouth and trust on the other can lead to negative group financial decisions and outcomes.

The main question in this is case is how to find ways to navigate users -through design- to both stronger collective and individual decision-making, given more realiable structures and channels of information?

See the team’s problem to prototype journey here and their final pitch here.

 The Savings Platforms team "Chama Kuza": Bancy Wamjiru (Kenya), Penina Mayabi (Kenya), Asuka Uesaka (Japan), Ali Muhammad Tahir (Pakistan), Mercedes Bidart (Argentina). Design Facilitator: Nickson Nyakambi (Kenya).

The Savings Platforms team "Chama Kuza": Bancy Wamjiru (Kenya), Penina Mayabi (Kenya), Asuka Uesaka (Japan), Ali Muhammad Tahir (Pakistan), Mercedes Bidart (Argentina). Design Facilitator: Nickson Nyakambi (Kenya).

3. Financial services as means to promote needed basic services. When cheap IoT technologies are mixed with easy-to-use digital payments, companies can lead the way to provide consumers with products that were previously expensive and enhance their everyday lives while simultaneously including them financially.

This is how the Pay-as-you-go (PAYG) business models work. In Kenya, for example, there has been a rapid spread of (PAYG) solar-generated power [56% of kenya is connected to the grid] in which customers buy electricity with mobile money for as little as US$ 0.50 cents a day and panels are deactivated remotely if payments stop. As a matter of fact, solar energy providers have been early adopters of PAYG, expanding electricity access to underserved communities through flexible payment plans. PAYG not only promotes the jump from having no electricity straight to green power [leapfrogging]. But also opens opportunities for people to build a credible payment history, which unlocks their ability to connect to other financial services.

These systems have spread widely in sub-Saharan Africa from potable water ATMs to health insurance such as M-TIBA by Safaricom, a platform to save, send and spend funds specifically for medical treatment. Not only are you able to save [in your MPESA mobile account] for your own insurance but you can also save for your relatives, friends or staff and assure access to licensed healthcare facility whenever needed.

But it doesn't stop there, PAYG systems can go as wide as telecommunications [allowing users to buy smartphones in stallments based on mobile psychometric data such is the case of Payjoy in Mexico]; agricultural capital-intensive equipment like Hello Tractor does [by allowing farmers to rent their idle tractors in South Africa]; sanitation such as the work that Sanergy does in African slums with toilets with mobile-connected IoT sensors that monitor the fill level of the facilities and alert their collection agents whenever waste needs to be removed; cookstoves like the work of PayGo Energy that accelerates the use of LPG in contrast to traditional biomass and charcoal. And the list continues from transportation to irrigation, cold storage, education, etc.

Although most of the solutions mentioned above use mobile payments as a means to deliver their services, PAYG are also innovating on payment systems with other means such as prepaid, debit, virtual cards, and digital vouchers. Certainly a space for innovation to look at!

In this context, at IDDS Kenya, the Solar Chama team built on this model by identifying that affordability and accessibility of solar energy in slums is still a challenge [by 2017 61% of Kenyans living in cities live in slums]. Despite of the advance of PAYG systems, these have been designed for individual households for better control.

Given this scenario, the team took into account the component of 'communal lives' mentioned above and designed a system that integrates the savings groups chamas to a technology similar to a PAYG solar systems but this time to be shared by a group of neighbors. The idea is this group gets together to save for a collective solar plan that would allow 4 to 6 houses to share the system.

Key challenges involve payment default that could be worked around micro-insurance packages that would cover for missing payments. Another challenge also revolves with the fact that a big proportion of slum houses are rented and dwellers may not have the incentive to pay for complementary services but landlords could have an incentive to uptake the model to provide a differential on their offering by an increment in rent.

The added value of having energy, amongst slum dwellers is clear, as they not only recognize the importance for education and safety but also as a means for income generation. Women specially are interested in what could become a distribution income generating activity that could provide for their families. Is there space to tweak current PAYG systems to expand access and diversify payments schemes for needed basic services?

See the team’s problem to prototype journey here and their final pitch here.

 The Solar Team "Solar Chama": Lydia Muthanje (Kenya), Kelvin Mwangi (Kenya), John Jal (South Sudan), Charlotte Castelnau (France), Claudia Cuevas (Spain). Design Facilitators: Alois Mbutura & Roy Ombatti (kenya)

The Solar Team "Solar Chama": Lydia Muthanje (Kenya), Kelvin Mwangi (Kenya), John Jal (South Sudan), Charlotte Castelnau (France), Claudia Cuevas (Spain). Design Facilitators: Alois Mbutura & Roy Ombatti (kenya)

4. Educate to bank. A recent study on education and financial inclusion at the school level in Kenya suggests that only 6.2% of 16 to 18 year olds in their sample had banked in a traditional bank while 33.8% had banked when mobile banking was included. Concluding that digital financial services could be a crucial complement to education in efforts to improve the financial outcomes of youth. But does correlation imply causation in this case with education improving financial outcomes of youth?

Wealth is clearly a better predictor of financial exclusion than location (urban or rural), gender, marital status or age [as stated in the previous paragraphs]. Yet there is one characteristic that easily beats out wealth: education. A Kenyan with no formal education is 26 times more likely to be financially excluded than someone at the top of the education ladder. Being 'education' not technological know-how or financial training but formal primary, secondary and university education.

Financial outcomes tend to improve as education levels rise and although this positive correlation suggests that increases in schooling could improve financial well-being, unobserved factors such as individual ability or family resources could also explain this relationship.

This is where the financial education team Finsomo at IDDS Kenya comes in. To work on the underlying mechanisms that can transform individual ability into causal effects for financial outcomes. As a matter of fact in a 2016 survey in Embu county [where IDDS was held], fewer than 1 in 3 people were rated financially literate when leaving school. In this context, the team built a solution that aims to integrate the 3 key stakeholders that influence youth learning at school: teachers, parents and kids themselves.

Learning from previous educational approaches that promote financial education at schools, and by undersanding key insights such as the reluctance of teachers to teach outside curriculum, fear to teach something they're new to, and specially the time-poor conditions; the team came up with a platform that mixes storytelling and gamification to (i) empower teachers to discuss and put in practice financial literacy (ii) leverage the student's natural curiosity (iii) reach parents through a complementary text-based storytelling platform to go beyond the material shared with children at school with a mix of storytelling and practical advice.

It has been proven that interventions to improve financial literacy explain only 0.1% of the variance in financial behaviors studied, with weaker effects in low-income samples. Like other education, financial education decays over time. Which is why, it is recommended to develop tools that promote 'just-in-time' financial education tied to specific behaviors it intends to help, as information tends to be internalized more when practiced by the user in these 'teachable moments' just like team Finsomo proposes.

Additionally, tools that keep information on top of mind in given [consumption, saving & planning moments] such as reminders organized in well-informed architectures, can make a difference in savings, just like MGovis doing in Brazil with low-income government programs beneficiaries & industry workers to promote healthier financial decision-making.

In the age where younger generations are quickly becoming digital borrowers due to seamless access to growing financial services that bring the convenience where funds are disbursed to users within minutes, it is, therefore, important to build better mechanisms to educate, communicate and protect the consumer against over-indebtedness. How do we design the environment to create those decision-making or teachable moments to make this real practice on financial services use stick at an early age?

See the team’s problem to prototype journey here, and their final pitch here.

 The Financial Education Team “Solar Chama”: Grace Marigu (Kenya), Harriet (Kenya), Ilana Kaplan (Australia), Joshua Musyoka (Kenya), Nancy Wakine (Kenya), Umair Anwar (Pakistan). Design Facilitator: Hamid Mehmood (Pakistan)

The Financial Education Team “Solar Chama”: Grace Marigu (Kenya), Harriet (Kenya), Ilana Kaplan (Australia), Joshua Musyoka (Kenya), Nancy Wakine (Kenya), Umair Anwar (Pakistan). Design Facilitator: Hamid Mehmood (Pakistan)

5. The intersection of design and behavioral economics. As mentioned above I learned that is it always useful to ask if the target user is near a tipping point, and only needs slightly better incentives to start using today’s financial services. This was a provokation [on the financial inclusion component] that we tried to keep on top of mind on teams throughout the design process and project development journey.

It happens that even with the available access to the wide variety of financial services, to move the user over the funnel from unfrequent to power user is still a challenge, specially when talking about trying brand new services. [In lines above I shared that despite the very promising figures on financial inclusion, cash is still the main means of payment, and adopted mobile accounts are used only by 1/3 of the users].

In this final learning and reflection I bring the importance of understanding the key architecture of behavioral economics or as we have been using it 'Design for behavior' in order to (i) undestand what are inherent behavioral biases related to specific field [in our case in the use of financial services] and (ii) what are those biases particular to a specific population [urban vs rural, men vs women, middle income & low income and so on]. It is in the understanding of these two key steps that we can start thinking and design what could be the interventions that could better work on those biases to promote, reduce or maintain a specific behavior.

[Behavioral biases are mental shortcuts used — by all of us — in our decision making processes. These could be motivated or unmotivated by psychological, behavioural, emotional, and social factors. And most of the time represent errors in information processing, given our limited mental bandwidth].

As a matter of fact, IDDS Kenya brought for the first time a teaching component on Behavioral Design and IRR (Incentives, Rewards and Recognition theory) in the development context to complement the strong design process methodology based on co criation and co design, shaped by Amy Smith at MIT's D-Lab. The idea behind was to advance the outcomes of the creative, generative, explorative approach to problem solving brought by the design process with a more scientific, measurable, analytic approach on how people make decisions.

A couple of examples:

Last year Kenya came up with one of the most drastic plastic bag bans in the world with threats of up to four years’ imprisonment and very high fines of up to $40,000 for anyone producing, selling or even just carrying a plastic bag. There are two sides of this story. The manfactures, exporters and even street vendors [such as fried chips or rolex — a delicious chapati + scramble eggs wrap] that use plastic bags as important packing material have clearly been affected since buying alternative material bags in scale could become a hardle. On the other hand, clear positive effects have been found in the short term. According to locals, streets and waterways look cleaner, and even the practice of flying toilets, common in slums [which is the act of defecating in plastic bags and throw them into the roofs with the risk of them falling during rainy days] has decreseased.

Overall it puts a greater emphasis on creating a new mindset of environmentally friendly practices and on the improvement of waste management. The question to be answered is whether this economic incentive is actually driving behavior change to shift mindsets or simply change the trends of use, in this case of plastic bags.

At IDDS Kenya, the Valuing Waste team worked to contribute to this challenge. They found that urban communities which make up 8% of Embu county population suffer from the environmental and health consequences of burning mixed waste. Additionally only 20% of urban communities in kenya get private waste magement and removal since the public system is unable to cope with current demand. In this sense there was a missing piece to create the right incentives to contribute to this challenge for (i) behavior change on waste management for those communities that are unable to pay for private systems and at the same time (ii) to promote financial services.

The team's solution works around encouraging residents to value waste by educating them on the importance of waste segregation and using the creation of a source of income as an incentive to promote this behavior change just as shown in the image below. The way it works is that (i) households [specially the ones led by women] are assigned with an account number connected to M-PESA; (ii) waste is separated in the house according to the educational campaigns & reminders, and later placed in the designated bins (inside the houses); (iii) homes notifies collectors that waste is ready for pick up through SMS; (iv) collector arrives to the house and measures the waste and loads his cart for later delivery to the landfill (v) plastic waste is exchanged for Kenyan shillings and (vi) collector and generator split the money received in specific proportions. All information is meant to be stored in a CRM/potential blockchain system in the future.

 Value Chain for the Valuing Waste Team at IDDS Kenya 2018.

Value Chain for the Valuing Waste Team at IDDS Kenya 2018.

By separating plastic out of the waste stream, the team is able to reduce and reuse plastic thereby providing cash incentives to both generators and collectos for waste.

Other complementary design for behavior strategies into making infrequent users become power users that came to mind, specially for women in the adoption of new services, lie on reliance of social networks or how to harness the power of the influencer, due to lower awareness and higher risk aversion [mostly in the rural settings]. In the same sense, if women are more price sensitive to fees, how about taking advantage of this sensitivity by offering discounts or loyalty bonuses?

See the team’s problem to prototype journey here and their final pitch here.

 The Valuing Waste Team: Sampson Kofi (Ghana), Julia Bontempo (USA), Anchinbom Ndichia (Cameroon), Ayee Flora Tracy (Uganda), Kelvin Muherekhizi (Kenya). Design Facilitator: David Wanjagi

The Valuing Waste Team: Sampson Kofi (Ghana), Julia Bontempo (USA), Anchinbom Ndichia (Cameroon), Ayee Flora Tracy (Uganda), Kelvin Muherekhizi (Kenya). Design Facilitator: David Wanjagi

It is clear that most projects work on the intersection of more than one learning & reflection shared above. And this is also true to any other project working in the financial inclusion field and beyond it.

These reflections also imply that expanding access to the financially excluded users in countries like Kenya will not be as easy as creating more mobile money services, giving access to mobile connections & phones or even designing smooth user experiences. Potentially, if a person is not an active mobile money user or financial service taker, there is a good chance that she or he has little money to manage, has little information about it and believes the product does not solve his/her main pains or needs.

To reach and serve the unbanked and underbanked is costly. One thing that is inherent in the mobile money revolution in Kenya are the low distribution costs to get to that final user [through agents for example, that are already in the corner, in the market, in your frequent service store]. It would be interesting to rethink these distribution models to go one step beyond to reach those that can’t afford to engage with big institutions, who may not want those customers anyway.

Despite the growth of the market, digital credit is not reaching everyone. And considering productive activities like agriculture it is exciting to see more Juhudi Kilimo / asset financing type of offerings expanding across the region. Because this user-centered design for the population whose livelihoods are characterized by irregular cash-flows, such as farmers and casual workers require a deeper understanding of their financial lives, the key risks that they face, and the daily liquidity needs.

Excited about how this IDDS group started the conversation on clear challenges for the underbanked and unbanked in Kenya. How continuity will be shaped with participants going back to their communities and apply what they learned, with actual projects becoming ventures and with local communities empowered to know they have the resources to contribute to social change. And from my side how I'll be able to put in practice these learnings in my work on financial inclusion in Brazil and Peru.

* * *

Appreciations to Roy, Daniel, Stella, Claudine, David, Nickson, Hamid, Alois, Shem, Eric, Karl, Rohini, Chebet and Flora for making this IDDS a reality with your wonderful contributions and local hospitality. Special thanks to both Krista Nordin and Mansi Kakkar! To Krista for bringing her strong passion and experience on financial inclusion to make finclusion sessions digestible as well as her meticoulous care to move projects into strategic paths. And to Mansi, my co lead curriculum for the wonderful time spent shaping and refining the curriculum plan on the design & behavioral components. And most importantly her energy to make those late night convos fruitful and productive. To all of our local and international participants for accepting the challenge to be out of their comfort zones and deal with different cultures, ways of work & learn, and attitudes to life. Without your incredible humility, energy and strength none of these outcomes would've been achieved! Last but not least to IDIN, all our partners, sponsors, donors and supporters from around the world. You played an inmense role making this happen!

If you are interested to know more about the projects developed at IDDS Kenya and contact their team leads please email us at iddskenya@mit.edu
















Culmination of our projects!

By Stella Odiwuor

          Now that we mastered the art of informed problem framing and put it into effective practice, we moved on to the next stages of the design process. This phase revolved around providing best-fit solutions to the challenges being faced by the community members while interacting with the previously introduced projects. [read our previous blog]

Step one: Idea generation. The team sat down through multiple sessions to come up with different ideas and approaches that would potentially resolve some of the issues that users are facing in the realm of financial inclusion while interacting with say, the microforestry sector. This process demanded creativity and empathy as they needed to put themselves in the users' shoes to come up with desirable ideas.

Step two: Concept Selection and Evaluation. Here, participants chose a concept that seemed to best address the problem they were solving. They then analyzed its features to determine the testability and plausibility in its context. Additionally, they identified what resources they would need to implement the proposed solution.

Step three:  Sketch modeling. Having decided on a solution and evaluated it, participants got the opportunity to express their ideas in 2D and 3D illustrations - from defined sketches and drawings, mind-maps, paper cut-outs and simply built illustrations. They used these pieces to present their ideas to the users.

Step four: User feedback. Teams had a wonderful learning experience when they went out to the field again to seek and understand user concerns about the solutions they were proposing. They acquired information that enabled them to recraft their ideas, marking the beginning of prototyping and iteration.

Meet our team members and learn more about what they came up with from the links attached below.

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Chamas/SACCOs/Savings Platform
Members: Asuka, Bancy, Penina, Tahir, Mercedes, and Nickson - Design Facilitator (Kenya)

Having discovered the challenges being faced by chamas in Embu, Chama Kuza (the savings platform team) uncovered the possibility of improving the efficiency of chamas by creating a digitized system where rural chamas can receive financial education through the practise and success of SACCOs and other chamas. How? See the link here.

Link: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1b2CSN0K3_uHkiEDNucRZUZZOSyhnHY-B 

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Financial Education
Members: Grace, Nancy, Umair, Hamid - Design Facilitator (Pakistan), Harriet, Joshua, and Ilana.

Amidst the many facets that Financial Education is, the team was able to design a solution with and for a primary school where pupils and teachers work together to increase awareness of money. They took the approach of storytelling as a tool for teachers and parents to help children and themselves to make financial decisions. More descriptions in the link below.

Link: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1V35Yg_73SpPMWAR0L75g-9e_1iQ7oMgK 

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Micro-forestry
Members: Gladys, Claudine - Design Facilitator (USA), Eva, Frank, Ismail, and Eric.

Naga wa Fedha (as is the team's name), came to the realization that forest farmers and residents of Embu needed a way to get quicker returns from planting so that they are sufficiently motivated to continue planting trees. They came with a software system that would use data mapping to show users where they would find resources and get rewards for planting trees. Learn more below.

Link: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1UukF_VE4Jp7gRLT0PfXwRHPRhsP04LEx 

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Solar lanterns and Systems
Members: Charlotte, Lydia, Kevin, Clau, John, and Alois - Design Facilitator (Kenya)

After endless prototypes and iteration processes, the team came up with a solution dubbed "Solar Chama" where local residents of a small area in Embu would come together and purchase one solar panel that they would share for home purposes. They would also collaborate in paying the initial cost and finish off the installments together. More can be found by clicking the link here.

Link: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1IFTIlNfV5uuK7hmCOM6dJdotEXg1VvTg

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Valuing Waste
Members: Sampson, Julia, Tracy, Peter, Anchimbom, Kelvin, and David - Design Facilitator (Kenya)

This team came up with a solution to cater to both the waste creators and waste collectors. They proposed to create a USSD platform synced with M-Pesa (Kenya's mobile money system) where the waste creators would receive money after participating in recycling activities. Find out how!

Link: https://drive.google.com/open?id=1ZPJf_Fk5PlKc3tZ27V-S6KIGYBqAi9Pt 

Community visits and stays!

       Over the past week, our facilitators have guided us on how to understand and correctly frame a given problem. In our case, we explored the different causes of minimal financial inclusion in five unique settings in Embu. As per on our individual interests, we were clustered into 5 groups - each representing the projects we would work on over the entire summit. These projects surround the topics on:

  1. Chamas/SACCOs/Savings Platform
  2. Financial Education
  3. Micro-forestry
  4. Solar lanterns and systems
  5. Valuing Waste

        We went out to the field where we got to interact with the community members of Embu. These community members were mostly involved - both directly and indirectly - with the projects we had taken up. Through our interactions, we would gather information on what they thought was the benefit of say, SACCOs, and how they wish their functioning could be improved. "They willingly walked us through their day-to-day to help us further understand what gaps existed between the intentions of improving access to electricity through solar power and the payment methods that were available," reported the Solar Lanterns and Systems Team. Ideally, we had kicked off step one of the design process - Information Gathering.

  Photo: Members of the Savings Platform Team,  Kushirikiana Kueneza Akiba (KKA),  enjoy a matatu ride to their community host's house.

Photo: Members of the Savings Platform Team, Kushirikiana Kueneza Akiba (KKA), enjoy a matatu ride to their community host's house.

        Later in the evening of Wednesday, we were hosted by different community members for an overnight stay in their homes. We got to learn even more deeply about the culture of the people of Embu and the dynamics of their interactions. Excitedly, we went grocery shopping in the open-air markets and got to make new friends with primary school children who had concluded yet another day of learning. The locals were beyond elated to have foreign visitors in their midst. They would wave and smile at us as we strolled home, and it was a pleasure to receive such a warm welcome. The Financial Education Team shared about their experience in a more remote area of the county where they learned how to cook the nation's staple food, ugali, while navigating their way in the house with no electricity. They remember crossing their fingers and hoping not to stamp on the owner's little kitten.

  Photo: A pot of boiling water and another of fried cabbages as prepared by members of the Financial Education Team and their host; a Head Teacher of Kanyangi Primary School (a local school in Kanyuambora, Embu)

Photo: A pot of boiling water and another of fried cabbages as prepared by members of the Financial Education Team and their host; a Head Teacher of Kanyangi Primary School (a local school in Kanyuambora, Embu)

      Conclusively, we had an enjoyable and eye-opening 24+ hours with our community members as we experienced cultural immersion. We are now keen to identify the key shortcomings of our projects and once we 'frame the problem' from the information we gathered, we shall be ready to move to the next stage in the loop of the design process. 

We are excited to keep you posted!

Yay! Our participants are here!

by Stella Odiwuor.  
       It is with great pleasure that we announce the arrival of our long-awaited participants! The organizing team made a trip to the Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) and Nairobi CBD to receive the participants before heading off to Embu together. This diverse team of curious minds has its roots in Cameroon, Ireland, France, Tanzania, Peru, Spain, Botswana, Uganda, U.S., Argentina, Ghana, Australia, Pakistan, Kenya among others.
  Photo of participants and one of our organizers, Stella, while taking a break at a filling station in Mwea.

Photo of participants and one of our organizers, Stella, while taking a break at a filling station in Mwea.

The journey to Embu was an easy two and a half hour drive on the Embu-Meru Highway. We enjoyed the beautiful lush green scenery in Kirinyaga County and the meandering uphill road punctuated by shallow rice fields in Mwea. At around 5 pm EAT we made a safe arrival at Embu University where the organizers received the participants with a Kenyan ‘happy dance’. We then began the 5-part registration process that was highly interactive, smooth, and very successful.

  Photo: Arrival at Embu University

Photo: Arrival at Embu University

  An image of the registration process at the campus

An image of the registration process at the campus

The catering team had prepared mouth-watering delicacies that we shared through the chatter, meet-and-greet, and sharing of personal stories. What a way to kick off the summit! We are all very curious to know more about our participants and as we interact every day in different capacities and activities.

Be part!

Organizers' Orientation

     It's been a very busy 72 hours! Since Wednesday, July 4th, local and international organizers gathered together at the University of Embu campus (where we will be holding IDDS Kenya 2018) to finally get hands-on with the work developed for the last 1.5 years. In 4 days, lead organizers, session leads, community liaisons and design facilitators will work in teams to go through the whole program and prepare the last details in terms of logistics, curriculum flow, community partners and participant experience.

  Photo: Organizers working in teams to plan for the coming weeks' sessions

Photo: Organizers working in teams to plan for the coming weeks' sessions

      Indeed, each summit has its own personality. In our case, this is the first design summit focused on financial inclusion which has meant incorporating new components that had to be built and tested. With curriculum leads coming from the fin-tech sector, research on financial inclusion and design for innovation, the outcome has been extraordinary! A curriculum in the intersection of design, behavior change, financial inclusion, and technology.

  Photo: Mansi Kakkar, our Curriculum Co-Lead from the Stanford Pre-Collegiate Studies, as she shares her knowledge on the design process.

Photo: Mansi Kakkar, our Curriculum Co-Lead from the Stanford Pre-Collegiate Studies, as she shares her knowledge on the design process.

        As we begin this process, we understand that it demands attention to detail and a high sense of intentionality thus the necessity to spend time with each other as organizers to ensure the smooth running of the summit. But even with the building pressure before the arrival of participants, we know there shall be lots of fun too.

Stay tuned for our upcoming blogs during the IDDS Kenya journey!

Meet our participants!

by Stella Odiwuor.

Following a rigorous season of participant application review and selection, we were able to identify 36 individuals from all over the world who were the embodiment of IDDS values to make a difference with and for the community. These applicants demonstrated drive, leadership, a sense of community, an interest in applying user-centered-design and were concerned about what new things they could add into their toolbox after attending an intense two-week summit that delves into Financial Inclusion. We would like to share a couple of those compelling stories in this blog.

Meet Anubhav Arora (30), a Chemical Engineering degree holder. He is currently a graduate student at MIT awaiting to receive his Master’s in Integrated Design and Management (IDM).

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After a successful initiation of Noora Health, a social enterprise in India, he and his team were able to emerge the second most innovative organization in the country in 2016 - just 3 years after its founding. Anubhav shares his endurance and zeal to contribute to the nation’s development and recalls teaching himself how to ride a motorcycle in order to be able to access parts of Jaunpur, rural India. During these visits, he was devastated by the state of healthcare and decided to invest in ways that would help in mitigating the entangled corrupt systems found in the health sector. Otherwise, more people who would have been able to receive medical attention would continue to lose their lives and the number of babies born in forsaken conditions would take a rise.

Among his most valued passions, Anubhav is committed to empowering the masses to work together in order to come up with solutions to endearing problems. He believes in the power of human-centered design to provide longer lasting, easy-access and effective solutions to challenges. He is strongly inclined towards working with like minded people during the IDDS Kenya this year, and will be one of the beneficiaries of financial aid looking to engage in experiential learning during the summit.

From the land of Baganda (Uganda) emerges a passionate Architect and Designer, Frank Morris Matovu (40), who strives to make a change in and for his community.

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Frank believes in the design process and prioritizes the step-by-step identification of problems that culminates in a broken-down approach to determine possible solutions. Throughout his school and work experience, he has been able to work with diverse teams that shared similar interests within and beyond his country. One of the most lingering big questions in his work is ‘How do we empower the people to understand the design process and put it into practice to create a more sustainable society?’

In 2007, Frank mobilized his classmates to reclaim the severely abandoned Independent Monument of Kampala. The local authorities charged with the responsibility of maintaining it had neglected their role, but he understood that something ought to be done. To-date, the monument and its surrounding remain clean and inviting while residents and Kampala tourists visit the monument to take souvenir pictures. More recently, he was able to attend the MIT D-LAB CCB (Creative Capacity Building) Training of Trainers where his team of four was tasked to solve the sanitation problem with a focus on unplugged latrines. They innovated new designs that would reduce the number of disease vectors that previously accessed human faecal material and spread diseases among residents by contaminating their food. Additionally, they would devise ways to reduce points of contact between the user and parts of the latrine.

The aforementioned experiences are among the many pathways that Frank has been able to leverage in order to positively contribute to his community. He aspires to empower people and co-create solutions with them for their overall better living standards. Frank will be joining IDDS Financial Inclusion this summer in Kenya to further his application of the design process and work with the locals to come up with solutions that best address their problems in financial access.

Help us get Anubhav, Frank and their fellow colleagues to optimise their experience in Kenya this summer and to continue creating positive change in the communities they live in!

IDDS Kenya 2018 will be held in Embu from July 8 to 23 with the aim to co create solutions to boost access to innovative financial products and services focused on rural populations. We encourage to follow our journey. We are also crowdfunding for selected participants with high potential that are unable to pay for their transportation and expenses during the summit. If you or anyone you know would like to contrtibute to the cause please click in in our StartSomeGood crowdfunding campaign https://startsomegood.com/projects/financialinclusionkenya.

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Powering the next generation

 The Omondis and neighbors enjoying power time.

The Omondis and neighbors enjoying power time.

This blog is part 4 of a 5 part series on what is financial inclusion and how is it informing the design of the curriculum for IDDS Kenya.

In Nyeri (2.5h from Nairobi) Faith and Robert Omondi recently gave birth to Angela, their 3-month-old baby. Faith and her mother focus pretty much all day on taking care of the little one while Robert leaves for about 4 to 5 days every other week as a tourist guide for a company that offers trekking services to Mount Kenya, one of the closest and most famous tourist attractions in the area.

When Angela was born, the Omondis realized the urgent need to have electricity available for specific household tasks. In Kenya, as most of Sub-Saharan rid access is partly non-existent in some rural areas and poorly reliable where it exits. In fact, rural access to electricity according to a recent World Bank report reaches only 48.39% of the population. Despite these challenges that consider around 8 million off-grid households countrywide, Kenya leads the ranking of electricity access in the region at 56%, surpassing Tanzania at 32.8%, Rwanda at 29.37%, Uganda with 26.7% and Burundi at 7.5%.

Without any other options, the population is forced to either go without power or use kerosene, an expensive, inefficient and often times dangerous fuel that pollutes the air and creates fire hazards. Effectively, it takes $8/month to fuel one kerosene lamp, and with the widespread use of cell phones, users like Faith who needs to keep in touch with her husband pays around US$0.20/day or $10/month to charge her phone at her neighbor's house.

The Omondi's neighbor happens to have a home solar pack that he was able to acquire using a market scheme that became popular is rural and urban Africa and Asia called PAYG (Pay as you go). This payment mechanism helps consumers and also solar firms themselves by bypassing the traditional hurdle of consumers having to make large upfront investments for solar products. Using PAYG services, solar customers can purchase a solar home system (that comes with a battery, a charge controller, a solar panel, LED bulbs and a mobile charger) on credit and make small daily payments using mobile money at a lower price than using kerosene lamps.

After making successive payments towards their solar system for roughly a year, customers build creditworthiness and can purchase other more sophisticated products, such solar-powered televisions, energy-efficient cook stoves and smartphones on a similar payment scheme and according to their needs.

The last-mile-centric software and IoT (Internet of Things) solutions around the solar devices allows them to be remotely shut off, in case the customer stops paying the agreed installments. This allows for high flexibility for the customer in terms of payments but also ensures a high repayment likelihood;  and based on all the data gathered, the opportunity to access profound customer affordability predictions as well as logistics and stock management adopted to suit the requirements of the target markets.

Among the companies that have adopted the PAYG model, we can find M-KOPA, Pawame and one of IDDS' Kenya partners Green Light Planet. These companies are bringing their innovative distribution model at the bottom of the low income US$2 to US$10 per day segment.

Until multi-million dollar electrification and renewable energy projects are executed in the medium term, financing of off-grid solar home systems is a step toward broader financial inclusion for rural, unbanked consumers like the Omondi across Kenya. And with them Angela's generation to have access to more opportunities such as better quality care, more lit productive time; consequently, a better quality of life.

Stay tuned for the next story from the field!

IDDS Kenya 2018 will be held in Embu from July 8 to 23 with the aim to co create solutions to boost access to innovative financial products and services focused on rural populations. We encourage to follow our journey. We are also crowdfunding for selected participants with high potential that are unable to pay for their transportation and expenses during the summit. If you or anyone you know would like to contrtibute to the cause please click in in our StartSomeGood crowdfunding campaign https://startsomegood.com/projects/financialinclusionkenya.

 

Driving new roads

This blog is part 3 of a 5 part series on what is financial inclusion and how is it informing the design of the curriculum for IDDS Kenya.

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Back in Nairobi, James Diya (26) is excited to be testing a new solution that could help him make his limited income more reliable. Living in Kibera, the world's largest slum with more that 1 million dwellers, James has been working as a matatu driver for the last 5 years, making a living of around US$ 10 to US$15/day.

Matatus, together with boda bodas (street motorcycles, right) are probably the only affordable means for the majority of people in Kenya to travel long and short distances. As a matter of fact, about 70% of the capital’s 1.3 million commuters use a matatu at some point every month for their commute because it is cheap and convenient. However, getting a ride on a matatu could also be onerous and time consuming from beginning to end as most of them wait for it to be completely full before leaving the stop/station. They can also be dangerous as they literally fight to beat traffic to the destination and back to the station in record time, as they pay daily rates to the van owner(s).

 
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Matatus are on average 14-seater privately owned minibuses that feature very impressive and colorful designs, multicoloured patterned ceilings, front view cameras and television screens that play music videos, reflecting the funkiness of the local culture. They also feature 2 main characters, a driver and tout (conductor). The conductor’s job is to fill up the van in record time by shouting its destination and the fare required for the trip. The driver’s job is to beat the traffic to the destination and back to the station in record time since day want to make most of the daily fees paid to the van owners.

Despite of the Kenyan government's measures to develop infrastructure projects from BRT (Bus rapid transit) to a light rail systems, matatus seem to be here to stay, at least in the short and medium run.

The convenience of matatus is usually offset by its unreliable service as  they often employ cutthroat measures such as fares that double or even triple when the weather turns rainy, breakneck speeds and driving in highway medians or across sidewalks to complete more trips, filling a bus with “poster passengers” to make it appear as though the bus is nearly full and thus about to depart and so on.

Without assurance of continued employment, benefits, regular salary, or daily earnings, drivers and conductors are also unprotected in many ways leaving them vulnerable to sudden and unexpected changes.

What some companies like Mobiticket and BuuPass have been doing in order to alleviate this situation is using a simple offline ­text-messaging mobile app, commuters can book seats, buy tickets via mobile devices and check the fares, schedules and real-time locations of buses. Users text a code to get information about bus type, fare and estimated time of arrival. They then text another code to buy a digital ticket, which they show to the bus conductor when boarding. For short distance, commuters can pay after they are inside the vehicle.

Additionally, drivers like James are also benefiting from joining Mobiticket as he can immediately gain access to a rapidly growing number of commuters. This will lead to a structured and more reliable and predictable income stream for his vehicle. Finally, through this platform, structured remuneration allows conductors and drivers a credit score allowing them to access loans from financial institutions. The bus crews also benefit from free health Insurance cover. The conductor and driver are automatically enrolled to the scheme free of charge.  

The bus owner from his side receives structured daily reports on how his vehicle is performing. Reports and statements can be generated at any time, and last but not least both crew and commuters earn bonus points when each use of the platform. Points can be redeemed for free rides, cash, airtime or fuel.

Stay tuned for the next story from the field!

IDDS Kenya 2018 will be held in Embu from July 8 to 23 with the aim to co create solutions to boost access to innovative financial products and services focused on rural populations. We encourage to follow our journey. We are also crowdfunding for selected participants with high potential that are unable to pay for their transportation and expenses during the summit. If you or anyone you know would like to contrtibute to the cause please click in in our StartSomeGood crowdfunding campaign https://startsomegood.com/projects/financialinclusionkenya.

Planting the seeds to progress

This blog is part 2 of a 5 part series on what is financial inclusion and how is it informing the design of the curriculum for IDDS Kenya.

In Kitui (about 3h NE of Nairobi), the Ojukwus also rely on agriculture for their livelihood but on a larger scale. Michelle, a single mom with two kids lives with her extended family. She dedicatedly works her land but faces challenges due to her limited resources and access to financial tools which hinder her ability to scale.

Farmers are one of the world’s most vulnerable groups, often at the mercy of unpredictable weather events, with limited access to infrastructure or support and little in the way of financial tools to help them mitigate risk. Agricultural insurance reaches just 10% of smallholders worldwide (falling to 1% in Africa). One of the main barriers for access to agricultural loans and services is the lending decision is often based on ability to pay and not on the productive capacity of the land. Lack of information on credit history and the high cost of in-person land assessments can also make the barriers to risk taking on the MFIs side higher.

 
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However, a few solutions out there are trying to change the Ojukwus situation by using satellite imagery to inform credit assessment. With the use of algorithms, we are able to see details such as what crops are being planted and how much yield is produced on the field, and generally build a detailed and insightful picture of a farmer’s life. With the right data, the risk of crop failure can be assessed and the high costs of frequent visits to rural areas where farmers live can be eliminated.

This is the case of Apollo Agriculture that launched a combination of services to rural farmers in Kenya putting together a package of hybrid seeds, fertilizers, farming advice and insurance (in partnership with Pula) and all accessible via a mobile phone. In this sense Apollo not only identifies a farmer but also increases a farmer’s yield by supplying a package that ensures the farmer will be able to repay the loan and make more money.

The most interesting part about this set of solutions put together to help families like Ojukwus is the behavior change that comes. And this is beyond the outcomes of empowering farmers like Michelle to be in front of her strategic decision making process backed by insurance to increase her confidence to switch to higher-yielding but higher-risk crops. Without better risk management strategies, Michelle would not make those decisions. If the new crop fails, the consequences for the farmer and family could be pretty negative, no one would take that risk.  And with insurance and credit, farmers are not only able to look beyond low-yield crops, they also begin to form a credit history and move along their journey to full financial inclusion.

Stay tuned for the next story from the field!

IDDS kenya 2018 will be held in Embu from July 8 to 23 with the aim to co create solutions to boost access to innovative financial products and services focused on rural populations. We encourage to follow our journey. We are also crowdfunding for selected participants with high potential that are unable to pay for their transportation and expenses during the summit. If you or anyone you know would like to contrtibute to the cause please click in in our StartSomeGood crowdfunding campaign https://startsomegood.com/projects/financialinclusionkenya.

So what is financial inclusion?

This blog is part 1 of a 5 part series on what is financial inclusion and how is it informing the design of the curriculum for IDDS Kenya.

By Alois Mbutura, Hamid Mehmood, Julio Lavalle, Krista Nordin and Mansi Kakkar

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As we lead up to IDDS Financial Inclusion in Embu, Kenya this July, we wanted to bring you as an insider throughout our journey to tackle financial inclusion challenges in rural Kenya. At the core of our curriculum we have been able to develop a design summit model that will include design for financial inclusion, behavioral economics and venture development components that not only aim to build capacity but also to promote the co creation of solutions with the potential to carry on after the summit.

But before diving into the details on how we will tackle those challenges, let's understand what we mean by financial inclusion.

In order to do this we'd like to share with you a series of 4 short stories in the next few days. These stories from the field have the objective to showcase how financial inclusion in Kenya is allowing people to save for family needs, borrow to support a business, or build a cushion against an emergency. Having access to some type of financial services is a critical step towards both achieving universal financial inclusion and reducing poverty & inequality.

  1. Bringing the bank to the kitchen

 Cooking in open fire vs. cooking with an improved cookstove.

Cooking in open fire vs. cooking with an improved cookstove.

This first story is about the Mwangis. A family of four living in the outskirts of Machakos, around 1.5h of Nairobi. There, Mercy and James have two kids Yvonne (8) and Evans (9) and make a living from subsistence agriculture, selling their crops locally and making up to US$ 5/day.

A day in Mercy's routine entails waking up at around 5am to get kids ready to go to school and prepare a simple breakfast. The Mwangis rely on charcoal for cooking. As a matter of fact, a total 65% of households in Kenya use primitive fuels as the main source of cooking fuel (animal and agricultural waste, mostly firewood) a number that goes to up to 90% in rural settings, followed by 29% of transitional fuels, mostly charcoal. Only 6% of households use advanced fuels for cooking like electricity or LPG.

Cooking on open fires require huge amounts of charcoal aside from the negative consequences on health, the environment and also their finances. Effectively, charcoal expenses for rural families could rise to up to US$ 300/year, a significant portion of their annual income.

But early last year Mercy heard from one colleague at her local chama (the Swahili word for local savings groups where members contribute an agreed amount of money as little as 50 shillings or US$ 0.50 for a period of time with the aim of helping each other grow economically) about the benefits of improved cook stoves.

Altogether, improved cook stoves have demonstrated to promote from 40 to 50% efficiency in the use of charcoal. Despite all the benefits, they are still expensive. For families living on up to $5/day, a $40 to $70 cook stove is a luxury. Therefore, access to financing is a key factor in enabling target groups to purchase modern cooking energy.

BURN Kenya, together with local MFIs and savings groups, is doing this with its main product Jikokoa which comes from two Swahili words Jiko (stove) and Okoa (save). So Jikokoa literally means “the stove that saves”. In this way, they avoid up-front investment and facilitate payments of ~$0.20 per day over a 12 month period. Given that daily fuel expenditures will be reduced from $1.15 to 0.80 per day per day the stove is expected to effectively increase household income from day one.

After a year of using the Jikokoa stove, the Mwangis not only have saved household money in buying charcoal that could be invested in buying seed for their small parcel of land but are also taking advantage of the superior, more efficient combustion process that significantly improves the air quality within the home, thus helping to reduce respiratory disorders especially of women and children.

Stay tuned for the next story from the field!

IDDS kenya 2018 will be held in Embu from July 8 to 23 with the aim to co create solutions to boost access to innovative financial products and services focused on rural populations. We encourage to follow our journey. We are also crowdfunding for selected participants with high potential that are unable to pay for their transportation and expenses during the summit. If you or anyone you know would like to contrtibute to the cause please click in in our StartSomeGood crowdfunding campaign https://startsomegood.com/projects/financialinclusionkenya.